Grade 11 – Exam Outline SCH3U

Grade 11 – Exam topics review – 2013

Atomic theory

· Atomic Theories

· Scientists and their discoveries – Dalton, Bohr, Thompson, Chadwick, Goldstein, Protons, Neutrons, Electrons etc.

· Subatomic particles alpha particle, beta particle, gamma radiation

· Quantum numbers – Quantum mechanical model

o Principal quantum number

o Angular momentum quantum number

o Magnetic moment quantum number

o Spin quantum number

· Shapes of molecules and the number of electrons in each orbital

· Predicting shapes of molecules of regular molecules like BeCl2, BF3, CH4,PCl5,H2O, NH3

· Electronic configuration with exceptions – Learn to draw the triangle and generate the Aufbau order of elements between 1 to 92

· Should be able to identify the quantum numbers of orbitals example “Px” what are the values of n,l and m?

· Equation for calculating the total number of electrons in an orbit

· Difference between orbit and orbital

· Hunds rule

· Paulis exclusion principle

· Balancing of nuclear reactions

· Calculation of relative atomic mass from the relative abundance of isotopes – this is a calculation problem

Bonding

· Ionic and covalent bonds

· Valency of atoms and ions, Valency is also called oxidation number

· Formation of ionic and covalent bonds

· Lewis dot diagrams

· Ions – Positive and Negative ions or Cations and Anions

· Counting electrons in isoelectronic atoms and ions

· IUPAC names of ionic compounds and molecular compounds

· Names of Anions and Cations

· Naming of compounds with multivalent ions

· Naming of ionic compounds and Covalent compounds

· Shapes of molecules

o Linear, Trigonal, Tetrahedral, Trigonal- bipyramidal, Octahedral

o Bond angles

o Calculation of DE and prediction of polarity of bonds

o Shapes of molecules

o Polarity of bonds and molecules

o Properties of ionic and covalent compounds

o Intermolecular forces like London’s dispersion force, Dipole – Dipole and Hydrogen bonding

o Predict the boiling points and melting points of ionic compounds and molecular compounds based on intermolecular forces.

Effects of chemical reaction

· Types of chemical reaction

o Synthesis

o Decomposition

o Single displacement reaction

o Double displacement reaction

o Neutralization reaction

o Combustion reaction

· Using single displacement reaction arrange elements in the increasing or decreasing order

· Predict precipitation of solids as a consequence of double displacement reaction using solubility rules

· Writing net ionic equations and total ionic equation s

· Test for Sulfate, Chloride, Lead, Silver, Barium,

· What are spectator ions

Quantities in chemistry

· Determination of molar mass

· Percent composition of elements in a compound

· Calculate the number of moles from mass

· Calculation of moles from total number of atoms or molecules

· Counting atoms in molecules and in given masses or moles from formulas

· Calculation of moles from volumes (Refer gas laws)

· Empirical formula, Molecular and its calculation

· Balancing equations and calculation of reactants required or products produced in a chemical reaction

· Limiting reagent, excess reagent, percent yield and their calculation

· Difference between Actual yield and Theoretical yield

Solutions and solubility

· Concentrations

o Molarity

o Mass %

o W/V %

o W/W %

o V/V %

· Dilution CiVi = CfVf – Calculation involving concentration determination and dilution

· Neutralization and calculation of end point using CaVa = CbVb

· Converting mass to moles and molarity

· Converting molarity back to mass

· Calculating moles in given volumes of solutions

· Extremely small concentrations like ppm, ppb, ppt usually used in determining pollution in air and water

· Definition of solubility, graphing solubility of a salt versus temperature

· Calculating mass of solute precipitated when solutions are cooled

· Reading solubility graphs

Acid and bases

o Acid and bases theories

§ Arrhenius theory

§ Bronsted Lowry Theory Conjugate acid base pairs

o pH, calculation using equation pH = -log[H+]

o Conversion of pH to molar concentration using equation [H+] = 10-pH

o pH + pOH = 14

o Difference between acids and bases

o End point and Equivalence point

o pH vs Volume graphs

o Indicators

Gas Laws

· All the gas laws

o Boyles law P1V1=P2V2

o Charles Law V1/T1 = V2/T2

o Gaylussacs law, Pressure Temperature Law

o Avogadros Law

o Daltons law of partial pressure

o Ideal gas equation

o Combined gas laws

o Ideal gas law equation and density problems

· Calculations on all of them

· Gas stoichiometry problems

o Predicting the amount of substances formed and used in reactions involving solids and gases – problems to be solved using stoichiometry and gas laws.